The Torah contains the Five Books of Moses, whose English and Hebrew names are: Genesis (Beresheet), Exodus (Sh'mot), Leviticus (Vayikra), Numbers (B'midbar), Deuteronomy (Devarim)
The Torah is divided into parashot (Torah portions) which are three to five chapters in length. The parashot are read, in order, each Shabbat throughout the year, in a yearly cycle which begins and ends on Simchat Torah (a holiday celebrated at the end of Sukkot). On holy days, festivals and other special occasions, special passages outside the cycle of reading are read.
Hebrew consists of consonants and vowels. However, unlike English, most printed Hebrew contains only consonants. Printed editions of the Torah contain vowels, as well as cantillation symbols (called also trop) which signify the proper way to chant the text.
Below are relevant topics related to the TORAH:
How is a TORAH made?
While printed editions of the Torah abound, in both Hebrew and English translation, and with many different commentaries, when the Torah is read in the synagogue on Shabbat and holidays, it is read from a hand-written scroll, called a Sefer Torah, in keeping with age-old tradition. It takes several months, and often as a long as a year to complete one Sefer Torah.
The Sefer Torah is written by a scribe, special trained for this holy task, on sheets of parchment. The parchment must derive from a kosher animal, usually a cow, and is meticulously prepared by the scribe, who first soaks the skin in lime water to remove hairs, and then stretches the skin over a wooden frame to dry. The scribe scrapes the skin while it is stretched over the wooden frame to remove more hair and smooths the surface of the skin in preparation for writing on it with the use of a sanding machine. When the skin is dry, the scribe cuts it into a rectangle. The scribe must prepare many such skins because a Sefer Torah usually contains 248 columns, and one rectangle of parchment yields space for three or four columns. Thus a Sefer Torah may require as many as 80 skins in all.
When the parchment sheets are ready, the scribe marks out lines and columns using a stylus, which makes a mark in the skin but no color. Each sheet must have at least three columns, and there must be a margin of three inches on the top, four inches at the bottom, and two inches between columns.
The scribe makes the quills for writing a Sefer Torah. The feathers must come from a kosher bird (usually a goose). The scribe also prepares ink for writing the Sefer Torah by combining powdered gall nuts, copper sulfate crystals, gum arabic, and water, preparing only a small amount at a time, so that the ink will always be fresh. Fresh ink is a deep black, and only this is acceptable for writing a Sefer Torah.
One the materials are prepared, the scribe visits the mikveh (ceremonial washing) in preparation for such holy work, and prays that the holy work about to be undertaken will be imbued with the sanctity in the scribe's heart. While at work, the scribe is a vessel or vehicle for God's holy words and thus intense concentration and cognizance of the sanctity of the work are critically important. Moreover, the scroll may contain no errors whatsoever. While some mistakes may be corrected by scraping off the ink of a letter made in error and rewriting it, if a mistake is made in writing any of the names of God, no correction may be made because God's name may not be erased. The entire sheet of parchment must be destroyed, and the scribe must begin that section of the Torah again. Once the sheets of parchment are completed, the scribe checks them each three times with the help of someone else who uses a Tikkun (a specially prepared printed text).
When the writing is complete, the scribe sews the individual pieces of parchment together using a thread called giddin which is made from the leg sinews of a kosher animal, most commonly a cow, a sheep, or an ox. The scribe makes one stick every six lines of text, sewing the backs of the parchment sheets, so that the stitches are not visible from the front. Then the scrolls is sewn onto wooden rollers called Eitz Chaim (tree of life). The Torah is then dressed and ready to be dedicated.
How is Torah read?
In most congregations, the Torah is chanted according to a musical system called trop, which can found in many printed editions of the Torah. While the notation for the text is, by and large, standardized, there are many different musical systems employed for chanting the Torah. In other words, there is general agreement about the specific trop symbols which apply to the words of the Torah, but many different tunes, and versions of tunes, by which the trop are sung. In some congregations, the Torah is either read without chanting, or read in Hebrew accompanied by a simultaneous translation.
It is challenging to learn to learn to read from a Sefer Torah, which contains no vowels, and even more challenging to chant Torah, because one must know not only the proper vowels, but the musical notation, as well.
A Tikkun (which means "correction") is a specially printed book which contains two columns on each page. One column contains a printed text of the Torah, with vowels and trop (cantillation) marks. The person preparing to read or chant the Torah learns the text from this column. In the facing column is a photographic reproduction of the same text (one column's worth) from a hand-written Sefer Torah. The person preparing a Torah portion practices from this column after studying the printed column.
Who may read from the Torah?
The one who blesses and reads from the Torah must be an adult in the eyes of the community, for the reader is fulfilling a commandment on behalf of all those assembled. The reader must be at least 13 years and one day of age. "Bar Mitzvah" and "Bat Mitzvah" mean "one who is of the age of commandment" and is the status which one attains at the age of 13 and a day. Thus, a young person may bless and read from the Torah only upon reaching this age. This is the reason that the ceremony marking becoming Bat Mitzvah or Bar Mitzvah centers on blessing and reading from the Torah.
2004-2008 Yeshua Ha'Mashiach Ministries, Inc.
Yeshua Ha'Mashiach Ministries
2004-2013 Yeshua Ha'Mashiach Ministries, Inc.
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