Congregation Beth Ha'Mashiach
(House of the Messiah) - Worshipping ADONAI & His Messiah, Yeshua Ha'Mashiach
Living & teaching as our Messiah taught us to Live
Messianic Congregation serving Northeast Atlanta Georgia (Gwinnett, Barrow, Dekalb, Rockdale, Walton)
Phone 770 554-2867 - email:

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Glossary of Messianic / Jewish Terms

10 - B

10 Commandments - Judaism teaches that G-d gave 613 commandments, not ten. The biblical passage known  as the "Ten Commandments" is known to Jews as the Aseret ha-Dibrot, the Ten Declarations, and is considered to be ten categories of commandments, rather than ten individual commandments.

13 Principles of Faith - The most widely accepted list of Jewish beliefs, compiled by Rambam.

613 Commandments - Judaism teaches that G-d gave the Jews 613 commandments, which are binding on Jews but not on non-Jews.


Aharon - Brother of Moses. Founder of the priesthood, and the first Kohein Gadol (High Priest). He helped Moses lead the Children of Israel out of Egyptian bondage. 

Avraham (Avram) - The first Jew, the founder of Judaism, the physical and spiritual ancestor of the Jewish people. One of the three Patriarchs of Judaism.

Adar - The twelfth month of the Jewish year, occurring in February/March.

Afikomen - From Greek meaning "dessert." A half piece of matzah set aside during the Passover Seder, which is later hidden by children and then ransomed by parents, or hidden by parents and found by children. It is eaten as the last part of the meal.  Symbolic of the Death, Burial and Resurrection of Messiah.

Akiba - One of the greatest rabbis recorded in the Talmud.  Lived 2nd century, named Bar Kochba to be Messiah.

Alefbet - The Hebrew alphabet. The name is derived from the first two letters of the alefbet.

Aliyah - Lit. ascension.
1) Reading from the Torah; (or reciting a blessing over the reading) during services, which is considered an honor (generally referred to in English as having or getting an aliyah and pronounced uh-LEE-uh).
2) Immigrating to Israel (generally referred to in English as making aliyah and pronounced ah-lee-AH).

Amidah - Lit. standing. A prayer that is the center of any Jewish religious service. Also known as the Shemoneh Esrei or the Tefilah.

Antiochus - Greek ruler in control of Judea who prohibited practice of Judaism in the 2nd century bce.  The villain of the story of Chanukah.

Anti-Semitism - The term "anti-Semitism" comes from the roots "anti" (against) and "Semite" (a term that applies to both Hebrews and Arabs). However, the word "anti-Semitism" is used specifically to refer to hatred of Jews and Judaism. Although the Holocaust is the best-known example of anti-Semitism, it is only the latest in a long and tragic history of expulsions, forced conversions, limitations of civil and political rights, lies and slanders such as the infamous Blood Libel and mass murders like the Russian pogroms and the mob violence incidental to the Crusades.

Arba Minim -Four species. Fruit and branches used to fulfill the commandment to "rejoice before the L-rd" during Sukkot.

Ark  - English for of aron kodesh, lit., holy chest. The cabinet where the Torah scrolls are kept.

Aron Kodesh - Holy chest. The cabinet where the Torah scrolls are kept.

Asher - 1.) Son of Jacob (Israel). Ancestor of one of the tribes of Israel; 2) The tribe that bears his name.

Ashkenazic Jews - Jews from eastern France, Germany and Eastern Europe, and their descendants. Most Jews in America are Ashkenazic. 

Ashkenazic - Ashkenazic Jews pronounced some Hebrew sounds differently than Sephardic Jews. The Sephardic pronunciation of Hebrew is increasingly becoming the norm, because it is the pronunciation used in Israel. However, you will still hear Ashkenazic pronunciations in many Orthodox communities and among older Jews.

Av - The fifth month of the Jewish year, occurring in July/August.


Ba'al Shem Tov - Lit. Master of the Good Name. Rabbi Israel ben Eliezer. The founder of Chasidic Judaism.

Balfour Declaration - British foreign secretary Lord Balfour letter expressing the British government’s commitment to creating a Jewish state in Palestine.

Bar Kokhba - Aramaic: Son of a Star. Real name was Simeon ben Kosiba (meaning Son of a liar), the leader of the last and most successful Jewish rebellion against Rome in 132-135 C.E. He died in battle when the rebellion was defeated. Rabbi Akiba declared he was the Moshiach (Messiah).

Bar Mitzvah - Lit. son of the commandment. A male who has achieved the age of 13 and is consequently obligated to observe the Mitzvah (commandments). A ceremony marking the fact that a male has achieved the age of maturity.

Bat Mitzvah - Lit. daughter of the commandment. A girl who has achieved the age of 12 and is consequently obligated to observe the commandments. Also, a ceremony marking the fact that a girl has achieved this age.

B.C.E. - Before the Common Era.  Used instead of BC.

Beginning of Day - A day on the Jewish calendar begins at sunset. When a date is given for a Jewish holiday, the holiday actually begins at sundown on the preceding day.

Beit Hillel - Lit. House of Hillel. A school of thought during the Talmudic period, generally contrasted with the stricter, more legalistic views of Beit Shammai.

Beit Knesset - Lit. house of assembly. A Hebrew term for a synagogue.

Beit Midrash - Lit. house of study. A place set aside for study of sacred texts such as the Torah and the Talmud, generally a part of the synagogue.

Beit Shammai - Lit. House of Shammai. A school of thought during the Talmudic period, generally contrasted with the more lenient, humanistic views of Beit Hillel.

Benjamin - 1) Son of Jacob (Israel). Ancestor of one of the tribes of Israel; 2) The tribe that bears his name.

Berakhah - A blessing. A prayer beginning with the phrase "barukh atah..." (blessed art Thou...).

Betrothal - The first part of the two-part process of Jewish marriage, which creates the legal relationship without the mutual obligations. In Hebrew, it is called "kiddushin.

Bible - Also referred to as the Tanakh. The Jewish Bible more or less corresponds to what non-Jews call the "Old Testament."  Messianic Jew's believe in both the Tanakh & the B'rit Chadasha (New Testament).

Bimah - The pedestal on which the Torah scrolls are placed when they are being read in the synagogue; i.e., the pulpit.

Birkat Ha-Mazon - Lit. blessing of the food. Grace after meals. The recitation of birkat ha-mazon is commonly referred to as bentsching.

Blessing - A prayer beginning with the phrase "barukh atah..." (blessed art Thou...).

B'nai Mitzvah - Lit. children of the commandment. Plural of Bar Mitzvah. Children who have achieved the age of 13 and are consequently obligated to observe the commandments. Also, a ceremony marking the fact that children have achieved this age.

B'nei Noach - A movement of non-Jews who have consciously accepted the responsibility of following the Seven Laws of Noah.

Brit Milah - Lit. covenant of circumcision. The ritual circumcision of a male Jewish child on the 8th day of his life or of a male convert to Judaism. Frequently referred to as a bris.

Burnt Offering - A type of sacrifice that represented complete submission to G-d's will. It was completely consumed by fire on the altar. In Hebrew, it was called an olah.

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